19. Acoustic Analysis: Spectrography
Martin J. Ball [+]
Until recently he was Professor of Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics at Linköping University, Sweden, having formerly held the position of Hawthorne-BoRSF Endowed Professor in the Department of Communicative Disorders, at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette. He received his bachelor’s degree with honours in Linguistics and English from the University of Wales (Bangor); his Master’s degree in phonetics and linguistics from the University of Essex; his Ph.D. from the University of Wales (Cardiff), and a DLitt degree from Bangor University.
Dr Ball has authored and edited over 35 books, 50 contributions to collections and 100 refereed articles in academic journals. He has also presented at conferences around the world. He is co-editor of the journal Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics (Taylor & Francis); and of the book series Studies in Phonetics and Phonology (Equinox), Communication Disorders across Languages (Multilingual Matters), and Language and Speech Disorders (Psychology Press). His main research interests include sociolinguistics, clinical phonetics and phonology, and the linguistics of Welsh. He has been President of the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association; he is an honorary Fellow of the UK Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists, and a Fellow of the Learned Society of Wales. His most recent books are Principles of Clinical Phonology (Routledge, 2016) and Challenging Sonority (co-edited with N. Müller, Equinox, 2016).
Joan Rahilly [+]
Queen's University Belfast
Orla Lowry [+]
Nicola Bessell [+]
University College Cork
Nicola started linguistic life with Old and Middle English texts in the BA Hons degree at the University of Oxford, followed by a Master’s degree in Linguistics and Comparative Philology. After working in a bookshop, at Oxford University Press, and then as a research assistant at Oxford University Phonetics Laboratory, she went to Canada to do a PhD. At the University of British Columbia she started fieldwork on First Nations languages. Her PhD research is on the phonetics and phonology of the velar, uvular, pharyngeal and glottal consonants of the Interior Salish languages. She held a post-doctoral position at the University of Pennsylvania Institute for Research in Cognitive Science, and a faculty position in the Linguistics Department at the University of Texas at Austin.
Alice Lee [+]
University College Cork
In this chapter the concept of sound spectroscopy is described. It is noted that today this technique can be carried out using software on a personal computer. Typical spectrograms illustrating frequency, intensity, noise (aperiodic sound), and pitch are included.