Analyzing the Media - A Systemic Functional Approach - Martin Kaltenbacher

Analyzing the Media - A Systemic Functional Approach - Martin Kaltenbacher

Generic Structures, Rhetorical Relations and Thematic Patterns in English and Spanish Journalistic Texts: A Comparative Study

Analyzing the Media - A Systemic Functional Approach - Martin Kaltenbacher

Julia Lavid [+-]
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
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Julia Lavid is full profesor of English Language and Linguistics at Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Her research interests cover a wide range of topics related to the functional analysis of English (often in comparison with Spanish and other European languages), using computational and corpus-based methodologies. She has published extensively on these topics, being the author of the book Lenguaje y nuevas tecnologías: nuevas perspectivas, métodos y herramientas para el lingüista del siglo XXI (Madrid, Cátedra, 2005), and coauthor of the research monograph Systemic-Functional Grammar of Spanish: a Contrastive Account with English (London: Continuum, 2010). In her lecture she discusses theoretical and methodological issues related to her most recent research on contrastive corpus annotation methodologies.
Lara Moratón [+-]
Samsung Electronics Iberia
Lara Moratón Gutiérrez studied English and Linguistics at Universidad Complutense de Madrid and completed her PhD on Thematic Patterning in English and Spanish: Contrastive Annotation of a Bilingual Newspaper Corpus for Linguistics and Computational Applications in 2015. She has published widely on SFL and Spanish and on computational linguistics. She has worked as a linguistic consultant for several electronics companies and since 2013 has been employed as the Voice Team Manager by Samsung Electronics Iberia.

Description

This paper provides a corpus-based comparative study of the relationship between global discourse structure, rhetorical relations and thematic patterns in a bilingual corpus of written journalistic texts belonging to three different genres (letters to the editor, editorials and reports) in English and Spanish. Previous corpus-based analyses of news reports and editorials/commentaries in these two languages have shed light on the role of clausal thematic choices as signals of their global or generic characterisation (see Lavid et al. 2010a; Moratón et al. 2012). In this study we extend this comparative analysis to the genre of “letters to the editor”, which has received less attention in the literature and examine the correlations between global discourse structures, rhetorical relations and the thematic patterns selected by writers of these journalistic texts. The data for analysis consists of a bilingual comparable corpus of a total of sixty-two texts, consisting of sixteen news reports, sixteen editorials and twenty letters to the editor, evenly divided into English and Spanish. All the texts were collected from British and Spanish high-circulation newspapers between 2009 and 2013. English texts were extracted from three online newspapers: Times online, The Independent and The Telegraph. Spanish texts were gathered from the online versions of three high-circulation newspapers such as El País, El Mundo, and La Vanguardia. The analytical tools used for the study are Halliday and Hasan’s concept of Generic Structure Potential (Halliday and Hasan 1989) and the further extension presented in Eggins & Martin (1997), Rhetorical Structure Theory (Mann and Thompson 1988), Lavid et al.’s model of thematisation for Spanish and English (Lavid et al. 2010), and the notion of thematic progression patterns (Danes 1974; Dubois 1987; Eggins 2004, inter alia). The results of the corpus analysis revealed interesting correlations between the global discourse structures, on the one hand, and the rhetorical relations and thematic patterns selected to realise those discourse structures, on the other. News reports, characterised by a three-staged generic structure (headline, presentation of the issue, and facts about the issue), typically select the Constant TP pattern which repeats and elaborates the topic stated in the headline in both languages (English 75% and Spanish 45%.). Editorials present a more elaborate generic structure consisting of a headline, addressing the issue, outlining the arguments and articulating a position, and prefer the Derived TP pattern in both English and Spanish probably due to the explanatory nature of the metaphorical headline. Letters to the editor are mostly of the argumentative type thus sharing the macro structure of the editorials which is realised by a combination of Themic and Rhemic patterns. The language-specific differences between the English and the Spanish texts were mainly related to the length of the global discourse structures, generally longer and more explanatory in Spanish than in English. The analysis suggests that thematic and rhetorical structuring are not random choices in discourse, but can be interpreted functionally as indicative of the genre under study, providing linguistic evidence of the global discourse structures which characterise each of these newspaper genres.

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Citation

Lavid, Julia; Moratón, Lara. Generic Structures, Rhetorical Relations and Thematic Patterns in English and Spanish Journalistic Texts: A Comparative Study. Analyzing the Media - A Systemic Functional Approach. Equinox eBooks Publishing, United Kingdom. p. 49-65 Sep 2019. ISBN 9781781796269. https://www.equinoxpub.com/home/view-chapter/?id=32948. Date accessed: 21 Nov 2019 doi: 10.1558/equinox.32948. Sep 2019

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