Phonology in Protolanguage and Interlanguage - Elena Babatsouli

Phonology in Protolanguage and Interlanguage - Elena Babatsouli

1. Are Speech Sound Disorders Phonological or Articulatory? A Spectrum Approach

Phonology in Protolanguage and Interlanguage - Elena Babatsouli

David Ingram [+-]
Arizona State University
David Ingram is Professor in the Department of Speech and Hearing Science at Arizona State University. He received his BS from Georgetown University and his PhD in Linguistics from Stanford University. His research interests are in language acquisition in typically developing children and children with language disorders, with a cross-linguistic focus. The language areas of interest are phonological, morphological, and syntactic acquisition. He is the author of Phonological disability in children (1976),Procedures for the phonological analysis of children’s language (1981), and First language acquisition (1989). His most recent work has focused on whole word measures of phonological acquisition.
A. Lynn Williams [+-]
East Tennessee State University
A. Lynn Williams, Ph.D., CCC-SLP, is an Associate Dean for the College of Clinical and Rehabilitative Health Sciences and professor in the Department of Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology at East Tennessee State University in Johnson City, Tennessee. Her research and practice have focused on developing assessment and intervention models that utilize linguistic methodology and principles to describe and treat disordered sound systems. Lynn is the author of several articles, book chapters, and books, is the current Associate Editor of the American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, a Fellow of ASHA, and ASHA Vice President for Academic Affairs in Speech-Language Pathology (2016-2018).
Nancy Scherer [+-]
Arizona State University
Nancy Scherer is currently Professor and Chair Professor in the Speech and Hearing Science Department at Arizona State University. Her research and clinical interests are in the areas of speech and language development and intervention for children with craniofacial conditions. Her research has focused on developing and validating intervention models including parent implemented intervention, telehealth delivery and training community health professionals in rural and international contexts with the goal of preventing long-term speech disorders. Her research funding includes grants from the National Institutes Health (NIDCD) and Department of Education.


Chapter 1 introduces the spectrum approach to speech sound disorders. It is argued that speech sound disorders should not be viewed as either the result of an articulatory problem or a phonological problem, but a combination of both. Specifically, it is proposed that speech sound disorders are considered within a model that incorporates the interaction of articulation and phonology as a spectrum upon which both reside. The speech of children within the spectrum may clearly show a tendency for phonological and/or articulatory patterns or varying combinations of them, depending on where these productions are in the spectrum as well as along the children’s development of phonological and articulatory skill. The investigation utilized both group and case study methodology providing evidence that supports the validity of the new perspective. In particular, the child case study showed that CS’s errors were sometimes of an articulatory nature and sometimes of a phonological nature. The group study assessed the speech of children with clefts, that is children who were expected to show patterns of articulatory errors due to their clefts. In spite of this, a combination of articulatory and phonological patterns were evidenced in the speech productions of this group that were shown to improve longitudinally, suggesting that the children were acquiring a typically developing phonological system, albeit with some speech delay.

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Ingram, David; Williams, A. Lynn; Scherer, Nancy. 1. Are Speech Sound Disorders Phonological or Articulatory? A Spectrum Approach. Phonology in Protolanguage and Interlanguage. Equinox eBooks Publishing, United Kingdom. p. 27-48 Jan 2018. ISBN 9781781795644. Date accessed: 02 Feb 2023 doi: 10.1558/equinox.34027. Jan 2018

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