Eight Principles of Cooperative Learning

Cooperative Learning through a Reflective Lens - George M. Jacobs

George M. Jacobs [+-]
Educational consultant, Singapore
George M. Jacobs received their PhD in Educational Psychology in 1991 from the University of Hawai’i at Manoa and has taught in Singapore since 1993. Education is George’s passion, in particular such areas as humane education, student-centered learning, cooperative learning, extensive reading, and ecolinguistics. George has hundreds of publications in these areas and has served on the boards of local and international organizations, for example as vice-president of Singapore’s Kampung Senang Charity and Education Foundation.
Anita Lie [+-]
Widya Mandala Surabaya Catholic University, Indonesia
Anita Lie is a professor at Widya Mandala Surabaya Catholic University, Indonesia. She teaches at the Faculty of Teacher Training and the Graduate School. Her areas of research are teacher professional development, English education, heritage language learning. She has also been consulting projects on school improvement in remote regions of Indonesia. She was granted SEAMEO-Jasper Fellowship Award in 2000 for her research on English curriculum in Indonesia. In 2011, she was a research fellow at the University of California, Berkeley. In 2016, she got a research grant from American Institute for Indonesian Studies (AIFIS) Luce Fellowship for her research on heritage language learning among second generation of Indonesian-Americans in California. In 2018, she got a Dedicated Scholar Award from Kompas, a leading national newspaper in Indonesia. She has published books and articles in scholarly journals as well as newspapers.
Siti Mina Tamah [+-]
Widya Mandala Surabaya Catholic University, Indonesia.
Siti Mina Tamah is a full-timer at the English Department of Widya Mandala Surabaya Catholic University, Indonesia. She has been working in the field of education since 1988. Ever since she graduated from the University of Groningen, the Netherlands where she obtained her Doctor degree in 2011 funded by the Indonesian Government, she has been involved in teaching students at Master's Program in TEFL, Graduate School at Widya Mandala Catholic University. In 2003 she was granted a SEAMEO (RELC) Research Fellowship Award. In 2013 she was an awardee of Scheme of Academic Mobility and Exchange program held by the Indonesian Directorate General of Higher Education. This award made her a visiting scholar at Southern Cross University, Lismore, Australia for three months. Her research areas are teacher training, and teaching methodology. Her current research interests include Cooperative Learning, teacher development program, and assessment.


This chapter centers on eight principles of cooperative learning. Different educators have different lists of cooperative learning principles. Probably these differences flow from a matter of emphasis. We are in no way competing with these esteemed educators. Our principles resulted from our reflections on our own experiences, and this book is designed, based on Farrell’s, the series editor, template, to enable you to develop your own principles. We want to stress that the various lists of cooperative learning principles are MUCH more similar to each other than different from each other, and there is no need to stress about the differences. Instead, we recommend that teachers focus on what works for their students in their particular contexts, in the midst of a world in which, as the saying goes, “The only thing permanent is change.” The list below contains eight cooperative learning principles highlighted in this book. a. Positive interdependence b. Individual accountability c. Equal opportunity to participate d. Maximum peer interactions e. Group autonomy f. Heterogeneous grouping g. Teaching cooperative skills h. Cooperation as a value

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Jacobs, George ; Lie, Anita; Tamah, Siti Mina. Eight Principles of Cooperative Learning. Cooperative Learning through a Reflective Lens. Equinox eBooks Publishing, United Kingdom. Nov 2022. ISBN 9781800502260. https://www.equinoxpub.com/home/view-chapter/?id=43493. Date accessed: 07 Jul 2022 doi: 10.1558/equinox.43493. Nov 2022

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