Indigenizing Movements in Europe
Graham Harvey [+–]
Since the mid-twentieth century, religious movements identifying themselves as Paganism, shamanism, native faiths and others have experimented with two forms of indigeneity. One arises from claims to be reviving or re-presenting previously hidden religious practices from ancestral or pre-Christian times. The other form of indigeneity is found in lessons learnt (directly or indirectly) from Indigenous peoples (especially Native Americans and/or Siberians). In the last decade in particular these two trends have sometimes fused in what we call “indigenizing movements”. This book tests the interpretive and methodological value of this.
“Indigenizing” was coined by Paul C. Johnson in a discussion of lowland South American and Caribbean religious traditions as the opposite end of a continuum from “universalizing”. The continuum recognises tendencies to emphasise resonance with and relevance to local and ancestral traditions (indigenizing) and tendencies to stress universality or global engagement. These need not be dualistically opposed and are most likely to be matters of stress. Those who conceive of themselves and their cultures as maintaining and enhancing discrete ethnic, cultural or religious communities may represent one trajectory. Others not only assert that they have something to say to the rest of the world but may also seek to revise “local ancestral” traditions in the light of more global traditions. We might recognise a tension here between “Indigenous” and “World” religions but the contributors to this volume contest the value of that categorisation of what are, in reality, more dynamic and fluid realities.
The chapters test a differently conceived tension: that between indigenizing and universalizing. This experimentation is propelled by examining European originated movements in which engagements with Indigenous animistic, shamanistic or “nature venerating” traditions are employed in self-conceptions and in the discourses of identity formation, maintenance and dissemination. Seven main chapters test aspects of our key theme by focusing on specific movements or phenomena. These are followed by a responsive afterword considering the effects of applying a notion coined for the critical examination of Indigenous South American and Caribbean religions to the different context of European movements.
The book aims to enhance understanding and enrich debate not only about evolving European movements but also about the concept and practice of Indigeneity, indigenizing and of scholarly practices in relation to such phenomena.
Table of Contents
European erotic death art, and British and Irish cadaver sculptures speaks to this. She gained her PhD in 2005 exploring the role of popular visual representation in the construction of North American Indian and Western Alternative Spiritual identities, and has continued to explore issues around indigeneity and identity construction, most recently writing about the Garifuna of St Vincent.
Over the past 14 years Christina has led the Masters degree in Death, Religion and Culture, teaching many death professionals from as funeral directors and death doulas, to
embalmers and palliative are leads, as well as people just interested in death as a subject of academic study.
Institute of Asian and Transcultural Studies. Pranskevičiūtė-Amoson has
experience of fifteen years (2004–2019) in applying qualitative social research
methods. During this period, she has conducted fieldwork in Baltic countries,
Russia, Sweden, Ukraine, Armenia, and India. She has published on
the material collected during her fieldwork on post-Soviet and Soviet religiosity,
alternative religious movements and subcultures. During 2014–2017,
she was a book series editor in the field of New Religious Movements at
De Gruyter Open. She has edited and co-edited journal issues (e.g., Open Theology
(2017), Journal of Lithuanian Anthropology (to be published in 2019).
Since 2016, she has been the correspondent for information concerning sociological
and legal aspects of religion in Lithuania (French National Research
Center (CNRS) and University of Strasbourg (France)). Since 2018, she has
been President of the Lithuanian Society for the Study of Religions.