7. The Lower Jordan Valley and the Ghor: A Case for Urban Life in Jordan in the 3rd Millennium BCE

Transitions, Urbanism, and Collapse in the Bronze Age - Essays in Honor of Suzanne Richard - Jesse C. Long, Jr.

Zeidan Kafafi [+-]
Yarmouk University
Zeidan Kafafi is Professor of Archaeology in the Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, Yarmouk University, Jordan. He is a leading archaeologist who has directed numerous excavations in Jordan and is widely published. He also served as acting director of the Jordan Museum and serves as Dean of Graduate Studies at Yarmouk.

Description

This paper focuses on tracing the development of urbanism through major transitions in the Early Bronze Age, particularly in Jordan. The paper revisits various pertinent topics for the Early Bronze Age, such as continuity/discontinuity, urbanization, and the city-state model, in light of recent discoveries and research. The article will survey sites primarily from the Lower Jordan Valley and the Ghors from the Chalcolithic through the EB IV period. The author will attempt to make the case for urbanization, continuity, and the city-state model in Jordan. The article also considers the Egyptian presence and possible influence on urbanism in the period. During the fourth millennium BCE the southern Levant was in permanent contact with Egypt through copper trade. Evidence for this trade in Jordan was found in the archaeological excavations conducted at sites, such as Hujeirat el-Ghuzlan and Maqas, on the eastern side of the Wadi Arabah. This relationship enhanced at the beginning of the third millennium BCE, after the start of the Dynastic Period in Egypt and, undoubtedly, impacted the urbanization development in the southern Levant. I dedicate this brief survey on the Early Bronze Age to my dear friend and colleague for many years in Jordan, Dr. Suzanne Richard.

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Citation

Kafafi, Zeidan. 7. The Lower Jordan Valley and the Ghor: A Case for Urban Life in Jordan in the 3rd Millennium BCE. Transitions, Urbanism, and Collapse in the Bronze Age - Essays in Honor of Suzanne Richard. Equinox eBooks Publishing, United Kingdom. p. Apr 2021. ISBN 9781781797204. https://www.equinoxpub.com/home/view-chapter/?id=37724. Date accessed: 11 Jul 2020 doi: 10.1558/equinox.37724. Apr 2021

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