Conclusion: The Keyword is Variability

The Multimodal Context of Phonological Learning - Debra M. Hardison

Debra M. Hardison [+-]
Michigan State University
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Debra M. Hardison (PhD, Indiana University) is a faculty member in the Department of Linguistics, Languages, and Cultures at Michigan State University. She has directed language and academic programs, and taught courses on second-language phonetics and phonology, linguistics for language teachers, second language acquisition, and research methods. Her research focuses on auditory-visual integration in spoken language processing, co-speech gesture, applications of technology in perception and production training, and the relationship between learner variables and oral communication skill development. She has published in numerous handbooks, edited collections, and journals such as Language Learning & Technology, Applied Psycholinguistics, and Language Teaching Research.


Chapter 9 concludes the book with a summary of the importance of multimodal speech input and the key theme of variability that emerges throughout the chapters in such areas as speechreading ability, the occurrence of perceptual illusions, success of perception training, attitudes toward gestures, and eye gaze behavior. Variability characterizes our speech and should be addressed in the classroom to ease learners’ transition from citation forms to understanding connected speech.

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Hardison, Debra. Conclusion: The Keyword is Variability. The Multimodal Context of Phonological Learning. Equinox eBooks Publishing, United Kingdom. Sep 2025. ISBN 9781000000000. Date accessed: 22 Jul 2024 doi: 10.1558/equinox.46497. Sep 2025

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